The body’s response
How the body responds to infectious diseases through the immune system.
Learning outcomes & key terms
• Students will be able to define and explain the function and purpose of the immune system as the body’s response to infectious disease
• Students will compare and contrast three lines of defense or barriers that the body uses to keep pathogens at bay and categorise them as non-specific or specific
• Students will be able to deconstruct the third line of defense or the immune response using key scientific terminology including the role of lymphatic system
• Students will recognize the difference between active and passive immunity and where vaccinations fit into this
The immune system is the body’s defense against infectious organisms and other invaders.
The immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease in 3 distinct stages.
Pathogens are defined as microbes capable of causing host damage. When host damage reaches a certain threshold, it can manifest itself as a disease
Aka non-specific immunity. Generalized, responds to all kinds of immunity the same way. Job= keep enemy from getting in.
Aka specific defense or acquired immunity.
Does things differently to innate immunity: it has to be introduced to a specific pathogen and recognize it as a threat before it goes to action.
Not born with this immune system. Can happen organically (touch a dirty door knob) or premeditated (vaccinations).
Once introduced, adaptive system never forgets it. It is systemic, fights throughout body.
The body’s mechanical, chemical and biological barriers. Surfaces of the skin (mechanical) physically prevent pathogens coming in, breathing passages, mouth, stomach (chemicals) – all mucous containing enzymes which trap and kill most pathogens the enzymes come in contact with.
Non pathogenic bacteria (biological) on skin and in GI tract take up space and resources to prevent other harmful microorganisms from surviving. Includes skin, mucous membranes, cerumen, tears, sweat and saliva, hairs and cilia.
2nd response: Inflammatory response
When body cells are damaged, they release chemicals that trigger the inflammatory response. Fluid and white blood cells leak from blood vessels into nearby tissues.
White blood cells called phagocytes then fight pathogens by engulfing them and breaking them down. Inflammatory response is the body’s first reaction against infection or tissue damage. Symptoms = inflammation, redness, pain and fever.
3rd response: The immune response
If a pathogen manages to penetrate the first line, and survive the second line, a third line of specific response is then triggered – the immune response.
The immune response is controlled by the immune system, in particular, the lymphatic system, the body’s disease-fighting system. Cells of immune system can distinguish between different kinds of pathogens.
Immune system cells (lymphocytes) react to each different kind of pathogen with a defense targeted specifically at that pathogen.
They allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them.
This last defense relies on the antigens and contains Helper T-Cells, B-Cells, antibodies, Memory B/T Cells, Killer T-Cells and Suppressor T-cells.
Also called antibody-mediated response.
Protective function of immunization is found in the humor or cell-free bodily fluids including secreted antibodies and proteins.
B cells protect us from bacteria. Antigens are molecules on the cell, which our body recognizes as friend or foe.
An immune response that doesn’t involve antibodies but rather involves the activation of phagocytes, antigen-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes, and the release of various cytokines in response to a viral antigen.
T cells are involved in fighting viral antigens.
Humoral and cell-mediated responses can occur in both the innate and adaptive immune system.
A type of white blood cell that engulfs and destroys a disease causing antigen.
Helper T cells
Attach themselves to an antigen on the surface of a macrophage. They tell other cells that there is an invading pathogen
Produce antibodies when they receive messages from Helper T cells
Produced from B cells, they attach themselves to the antigens to make it easier for the macrophage to engulf the invaders
Killer T Cells
When they receive a message from the Helper T cells, they are stimulated to release proteins that kill the invading pathogen
Memory B cells/T Cells
Created after the invading pathogen has been destroyed. They provide immunity against future invaders with the same specific antigen.
Suppressor T cells
Signals the immune system to stop the response to the antigen by releasing a chemical messenger.
Multi-celluluar organisms rely on coordinated and interdependent internal systems to respond to changes in their environment (ACSSU175).
- Describing how the requirements for life (for example oxygen, nutrients, water and removal of waste) are provided through the coordinated function of body systems such as the respiratory, circulatory, digestive, nervous and excretory systems
- Explaining how body systems work together to maintain a functioning body using models, flow diagrams or simulations
- Investigating the response of the body to changes as a result of the presence of micro-organisms
About the immune system
The immune system is the body’s defence against infectious organisms and other invaders. Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks and neutralises organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease
The immune system has two avenues to fight disease:
- non-specific immunity, and
- specific immunity
Also known as innate immunity. This is the first line of defence once a pathogen threatens to enter the body. An example is the macrophage, which gobbles up pathogens!
- All animals have non-specific immunity
- White blood cells do the majority of the work for non-specific immunity
White Blood Cells
These are special cells because they can:
- ingest pathogens and destroy them,
- produce chemicals to destroy pathogens and they can neutralise the chemicals released by pathogens that make us sick
If a pathogen does enter the body, such as through a cut in the skin, the innate immune system will send cells to the area
The White Blood Cells will help sterilise the area, ingest and destroy any pathogens and start to heal and clot the wound to prevent any further injuries or more pathogens entering
When the innate system is at work, quite often inflammation and fever follow. Inflammation enables blood carrying immune cells to flow to the infected area more easily
White blood cells come in a variety of types: phagocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neutrophils
Each type of white blood cell has a purpose to achieve a quick response in the case of pathogen infection
Specific immunity is sometimes referred to as adaptive immunity. It is slower to respond but it can learn from diseases and form a memory. Once it has seen a disease once and formed a memory, its response is rapid and effective
It is because of specific immunity that vaccinations work
- Only vertebrates have specific immunity
- Lymphocytes are involved in specific immunity
The immune system is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body. One of the important cells involved are white blood cells, also called leukocytes, which come in two basic types that combine to seek out and destroy disease-causing organisms or substances
There are two basic types of leukocytes:
- phagocytes, cells that chew up invading organisms (non-specific or innate immunity) and
- lymphocytes, cells that allow the body to remember and recognize previous invaders and help the body destroy them
A number of different cells are considered phagocytes. The most common type is the neutrophil, which primarily fights bacteria. If doctors are worried about a bacterial infection, they might order a blood test to see if a patient has an increased number of neutrophils triggered by the infection. Other types of phagocytes have their own jobs to make sure that the body responds appropriately to a specific type of invader
The two kinds of lymphocytes are B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes. Lymphocytes start out in the bone marrow and either develop there and mature into B cells, or they leave for the thymus gland, where they mature into T cells
B lymphocytes and T lymphocytes have separate functions: B lymphocytes are like the body’s military intelligence system, seeking out their targets and sending defences to lock onto them
T cells are like the soldiers, destroying the invaders that the intelligence system has identified
Leukocytes are produced or stored in many locations in the body, including the thymus, spleen, and bone marrow. For this reason, those places called lymphoid organs. There are also clumps of lymphoid tissue throughout the body, primarily as lymph nodes, that house the leukocytes
The leukocytes circulate through the body between the organs and nodes through both lymphatic vessels and blood vessels. In this way, the immune system works in a coordinated manner to monitor the body for germs or substances that might cause problems
Putting it all together: 3 lines of defence
Putting all the pieces together. Our first line of defence is barriers like skin and mucus
If pathogens get past that then the non-specific (innate and immediate) immune system is activated
If the specific immune system has seen the pathogen before it can respond more quickly and destroy the pathogen but if the germ is new to the body’s immunity, it takes a few days or a week (depending on the pathogen) to react and defend the body
Here’s how it works
When antigens (foreign substances, usually on the outside of a germ, that helps invade the body) are detected, several types of cells work together to recognize them and respond. These cells trigger the B lymphocytes to produce specific antibodies, which are specialised proteins that lock onto specific antigens
Once produced, these specific antibodies stay in a person’s body, as do mature lymphocytes with memory (called plasma cells, that can convert to rapidly make a specific antibody). If his or her immune system encounters that antigen again, the antibodies are already there to do their job, and the plasma cells switch on quickly. So if someone gets sick with a certain disease, like chickenpox, that person usually won’t get sick from it again
This is also how immunisations prevent certain diseases. An immunisation introduces the body to a particular foreign antigen in a way that doesn’t make someone sick, but does allow the body to produce antibodies (and memory cells) that will then protect the person from future attack by the germ or substance that produces that particular disease
Although antibodies can recognise an antigen and lock onto it, they are not always capable of destroying it without help. That’s the job of the T cells, which are part of the system that destroys antigens that have been tagged by antibodies or cells that have been infected or somehow changed. (Some T cells are actually called “killer cells.”) T cells also are involved in helping signal other cells (like phagocytes) to do their jobs
Antibodies also can neutralise toxins (poisonous or damaging substances) produced by different organisms. Lastly, antibodies can activate a group of proteins called complement that are also part of the immune system
Complement assists in killing bacteria, viruses, or infected cells
All of these specialised cells and parts of the immune system offer the body protection against disease. This protection is called immunity
1. What are the 4 main categories of pathogens?
2. What is an example of a disease caused by each?
3. How does it enter the body?
- Bacteria (Strep throat, E. coli, staph infections, tuberculosis, tetanus, syphilis)
- Virus (cold, flu, chicken pox, HIV, cold sore, measles)
- Fungi (athlete’s foot, Ringworm, tinea, candidiasis)
- Parasites (diarrhea, malaria, giardiasis)
Teacher led discussion about Immune system.
- What stops a pathogen killing us/making us sick straight away?
- Where is the immune system located?
- How does it work?
1. Build your definitions
Students are to write down each of the following terms, do research on the content in this lesson and online and match a definition to each key term.
- Immune System
- Immune Response
- First line of defense
- Second line of defense / Inflammation response
- Third line of defense / Immune Response
- Non-specific response
- Specific response
- B cells
- Killer T cells
- Helper T cells
- Memory B and T cells
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CeVtPDjJBPU advanced explanation of immune system. Your immune System: Natural Born Killer. Crash Course Biology #32
More basic explanation: http://kidshealth.org/en/kids/ismovie.html?WT.ac=p-ra animation of how the immune system works (direct link: http://bcove.me/zo3d76kb )
https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/chemistry/2020/press-release/ – during Emmanuelle Charpentier’s studies of Streptococcus pyogenes, one of the bacteria that cause the most harm to humanity, she discovered a previously unknown molecule, tracrRNA. Her work showed that tracrRNA is part of bacteria’s ancient immune system, CRISPR/Cas, that disarms viruses by cleaving their DNA.
Short videos including immune immune system structure and function – overview, non-specific and specific response.
If pathogens get through the body’s first two lines of defense, a third line of defense takes over. This third line of defense involves the immune system. For a cartoon introduction to the immune system, watch this video: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WJEc2GDEfz8.
https://www.aai.org/Education/Summer_Teachers/Docs/Archive/2003_Porter_Final.pdf Unit plan on acting out the immune response. Great ideas for extension.
http://pulse.pharmacy.arizona.edu/10th_grade/disease_epidemics/science/handouts/defensive.pdf Unit plan studying the body’s defense mechanisms
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CeVtPDjJBPU YouTube video: Your Immune System: Natural Born Killer by Crash Course Biology (advanced)
Analogies of Immune System:
Robbing a bank.
https://prezi.com/bwpdtgswrv61/immune-system-castle-analogy/ Protecting a castle
https://web.archive.org/web/20130502012737/http://www.amnh.org/nationalcenter/infection/ Infection, detection, protection. Series of activities and games focusing on the immune system. These are geared at younger learners but provide good ideas for adapted technology creation.
http://www.amnh.org/ology/features/bacteria_in_the_cafeteria_game/ more aligned with lesson 2, this is a great idea for an interactive game though.
Which type of barrier to pathogens is in your opinion the most effective? Explain why.
Class extension activity: https://www.aai.org/Education/Summer_Teachers/Docs/Archive/2003_Porter_Final.pdf In the class activity “Acting Out the Immune Response” at the URL below, students will act out a nonspecific and then a specific response to an invading pathogen. Each student will have an assigned role in the activity, and props will be used.
The body has an orderly way of fighting disease through an impressive 3 lines of defense.
In the next lesson we will look in further detail at how we develop immunity and the role of vaccines in preventing disease in the first place.
1) Non-specific immunity is
a) The first line of defense against a pathogen
c) Only present in some animals
d) All of the above
2) White blood cells
a) Are the cells that carry oxygen to the body
b) Are the cells that cause tissue growth
c) Ingest pathogens to destroy them
d) Have only one type
3) Specific immunity is
a) Initially slower to respond than non-specific immunity
b) Initially faster to respond than non-specific immunity
c) Is only found in invertebrates
d) Involves red blood cells
4) Immunisations prevent diseases by
a) Killing the pathogen by phagocytosis
b) Teaching the body to produce antibodies the same way the pathogen would, but without making someone sick
c) Releasing complement to kill the pathogen
d) Mimicking the pathogen